Western civilization before the thirty year

If we reject the study of Western civilization because of the violence that has often been part of it, we might be forced to reject the study of all other civilizations too. However, in the 12th century the works of Aristotle were reintroduced to the West, which resulted in a new school of inquiry known as scholasticismwhich emphasized scientific observation.

Secular thinkers like Machiavelli re-examined the history of Rome to draw lessons for civic governance.

Western civilization class

Monumental abbeys and cathedrals were constructed and decorated with sculptures, hangings, mosaics and works belonging one of the greatest epochs of art and providing stark contrast to the monotonous and cramped conditions of ordinary living. Political institutions such as the Parliament of England and the Model Parliament originate from the Plantagenet period, as do educational institutions including the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. Monks sought out refuge at the far fringes of the known world: like Cornwall, Ireland, or the Hebrides. How many of them have to do with the distinctive character of Western literature and philosophy? By the start of the second millennium AD, the West had become divided linguistically into three major groups. The Koran is no less violent than the Old Testament; and the New Testament is a reminder that texts that are part of the Western tradition can contain strongly pacifistic ideas, just as non-Western texts can. Also in , the Swedes attacked Vienna, but were unable to capture the city from the Holy Roman Empire. However, when Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the Battle of Lutzen in , the Swedes lost some of their resolve. As the Medieval period progressed, the aristocratic military ideal of Chivalry and institution of knighthood based around courtesy and service to others became culturally important.

French Revolution — The French Revolution, was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe. Thanks for watching! Italy was dominated by city-statesmany of which were nominally part of the Holy Roman Empireand were ruled by wealthy aristocrats like the Medicisor in some cases, by the pope.

Inthe last of the Greenland Norseman abandoned their colony to the ice.

Western civilization before the thirty year

What the historical record suggests, in fact, is that pretty much all cultures that we know of have been trying to beat other people up and take their stuff for the whole of human history. Greatest artists like Brunelleschi , Botticelli , Da Vinci , Michelangelo , Giotto , Donatello , Titian and Raphael produced inspired works — their paintwork was more realistic-looking than had been created by Medieval artists and their marble statues rivalled and sometimes surpassed those of Classical Antiquity. The nobles gave land to vassals , who served as knights to defend their monarch or noble. From the East, however, the Ottoman Turks under Suleiman the Magnificent continued their advance into the heart of Christian Europe — besieging Vienna in Over the ensuing years, the French army had several notable victories, but also suffered significant defeats, particularly at the Battle of Herbsthausen in Other campaigns in Spain and Portugal the Reconquista , and Northern Crusades continued into the 15th century. Complexes like the Abbey of Cluny became vibrant centres with dependencies spread throughout Europe. Major cities like Paris, Hamburg, Venice and Florence lost half their population. Or maybe the dominance of the West was really only put beyond doubt after the Industrial Revolution, which led to an unprecedented and sustained explosion in economic growth. Two important philosophers of this period were Saint Anselm and Saint Thomas Aquinas , both of whom were concerned with proving God's existence through philosophical means. Men of intelligence usually joined religious orders and those of intellectual, administrative or diplomatic skill could advance beyond the usual restraints of society — leading churchmen from faraway lands were accepted in local bishoprics, linking European thought across wide distances. Other cultures, reared in worlds that were no less violent than the West, also produced texts that are full of violence, like the Bhagavad Gita, or that were guides to military conquest, like The Art of War. By the start of the second millennium AD, the West had become divided linguistically into three major groups.

Ina Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus found the Americas during an attempt to find a western route to East Asia.

In Normandy the Vikings adopted French culture and language, became Christians and were absorbed into the native population. Norse colonization of the Americas — The Norse colonization of the Americas began as early as the 10th century, when Norse sailors explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeastern fringes of North America.

Look back at the list of factors that have been put forward for the astounding military and economic superiority that the West achieved in the modern period.

western civilization timeline pdf

Maybe institutions that gradually limited the power of monarchs and increased stability and credit-worthiness played a role, as did the emerging scientific culture of the Enlightenment, and the technological advances it brought with it.

The father of modern science Galileo and Christiaan Huygens developed more advance telescopes and used these in their scientific research.

However, Muslim forces reconquered the land by the 13th century, and subsequent crusades were not very successful.

Western civilization definition

Thus, the French entered the conflict in Jim Crow laws enforcing racial segregation in the U. The Viking Age saw Norseman explore, raid, conquer and trade through wide areas of the West. Confederate States of America — The Confederate States of America was a government set up from to by eleven Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States. Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe. Norse explorers reached Iceland , Greenland , and even North America, however only Iceland was permanently settled by the Norse. However, when Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the Battle of Lutzen in , the Swedes lost some of their resolve. Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity. Share this:. The father of microbiology , Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pioneered the use of the microscope in the study of microbes and established microbiology as a scientific discipline.
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History of Western civilization