The kidneys structure functions and what controls these functions essay

A usual blood test is for urea and electrolytesknown as a U and E.

what are the primary functions of the kidneys

Kidney Function and Physiology Kidneys filter blood in a three-step process. The papillae are bundles of collecting ducts that transport urine made by nephrons to the calyces of the kidney for excretion.

The kidneys structure functions and what controls these functions essay

Because the kidney filters blood, its network of blood vessels is an important component of its structure and function. Loop of Henle. An additional two or more years is spent specifically studying kidney disorders and their accompanying effects on the body. The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a retroperitoneal position. Additionally, the loop of Henle invades the renal medulla, which is naturally high in salt concentration and tends to absorb water from the renal tubule and concentrate the filtrate. In juxtamedullary nephrons, the peritubular capillary network forms a network around the loop of Henle and is called the vasa recta. The renal corpuscle contains two additional structures: The glomerulus. These nephrons are called cortical nephrons. When hormones trigger the macula densa cells in the DCT due to variations in blood volume, blood pressure, or electrolyte balance, these cells can immediately communicate the problem to the capillaries in the afferent and efferent arterioles, which can constrict or relax to change the glomerular filtration rate of the kidneys. Kidneys were once popularly regarded as the seat of the conscience and reflection, [38] [39] and a number of verses in the Bible e. Most of the tubular secretion happens in the DCT, but some occurs in the early part of the collecting duct. This brings oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidney for filtration.

The kidneys work to ensure an adequate quantity of plasma to keep blood flowing to vital organs. Their basic functions include: 1.

Structure and function of kidney

Blood Flow in the Kidney. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment within a living organism. These arterioles go to the Bowman's Capsules of nephrons, where the wastes are taken out of the blood by pressure filtration. The tips of the pyramids, called renal papillae, point toward the renal pelvis. Most water and solutes are recovered by this second capillary bed. Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal medicine. The Excretory system is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis. They take in blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood. On the superior aspect of each kidney is the adrenal gland. Further reabsorption is controlled by hormones, which will be discussed in a later section. The renal pyramids are in the medulla. Almost all nutrients are reabsorbed, and this occurs either by passive or active transport. Multicystic dysplastic kidney occurs in approximately one in every live births Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction or UPJO; although most cases are congenital, some are acquired.

They are protected in the retroperitoneal space by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle. These join up again to form the efferent arteriole, which take blood away from the Bowman's capsule.

renal medulla function

Both reabsorption and secretion take place in this segment, which is where sodium and potassium concentrations and other electrolytes and the pH of the tubular fluid are adjusted to ensure homeostasis.

As mentioned earlier, these glomerular capillaries filter the blood based on particle size. On the inside of the kidney, the renal pelvis branches out into two or three extensions called the major calyceswhich further branch into the minor calyces.

Every human has two kidneys. Alcohol: Consuming more than one drink per day can harm the kidneys and impair renal function.

what are the 3 main functions of the kidneys?

Cortex In a dissected kidney, it is easy to identify the cortex; it appears lighter in color compared to the rest of the kidney.

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Essay on Kidney Function