Traditionally, leadership was defined from a trait-oriented perspective. Figure 2: Model of Ohio State University illustrates the four leadership styles on their two dimensions.
Furthermore, the disposition of the workers can be a factor in the leadership approach. Criticisms of the Michigan Leadership Studies The overarching assertion of the studies was that less direct pressure and control allows employees to be more productive and engaged with their tasks.
This theoretical evolution has progressed over time, from identifying individual personalities or characteristics to formal studies related to what constitutes leadership and why leadership is or is not successful. The narrow options of the studies also do not consider that one-size does not fit all organizations or circumstances.
Leadership research continues as scholars observe, identify, and promote the emergence of new leadership styles and behaviors in the 21st century.
The content of this paper will as follows: firstly, a review on University of Michigan leadership model and the second part, is a review on Ohio State University leadership model. However, the use of direct pressure and close supervision led to decreased satisfaction and increased turnover and absenteeism.
Learning Objectives Distill the key people-oriented and task-oriented behaviors of effective leaders Key Takeaways Key Points The core characteristics, behaviors, situations and traits that define good leaders area constant sources of study, analysis, and debate. It is notable that the two factors correlate with the people task division that appears in other studies and as preferences.
Learning Objectives Discuss the Michigan Leadership Studies generated in the s and s in the broader context of behavioral approaches to leadership Key Takeaways Key Points The Michigan Leadership Studies of the s and s researched behavioral approaches and identification of leader relationships and group processes.