Craik and tulving

Therefore, memory is more complex than described by the LOP theory. For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. Memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information, and there is no clear distinction between short term and long term memory.

This widened the focus from seeing long-term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system.

Hyde and jenkins 1973

Another problem is that participants typically spend a longer time processing the deeper or more difficult tasks. Deeper processing goes with more effort and more time, so it is difficult to know which factor influences the results. Results Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words. Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal repetition to help us hold something in the STM and leads to fairly short-term retention of information. Structural processing appearance which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. The levels of processing theory focuses on the processes involved in memory, and thus ignores the structures. Therefore, memory is more complex than described by the LOP theory. Participants were then given a long list of words into which the original words had been mixed. For example, elaboration rehearsal leads to recall of information than just maintenance rehearsal. Consequently more information will be remembered and recalled and better exam results should be achieved. The above examples could all be used to revise psychology using semantic processing e. Indeed, there is no independent way of measuring the depth of processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, , The ideas of 'depth' and 'elaboration' are vague and ill defined Eysenck,

This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi-store model. Key Study: Craik and Tulving Aim To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.

craik fi & lockhart rs 1972

This means participants are unlikely to engage in extra processing which could invalidate the results. Craik defined depth as: "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it.

craik and tulving 1975 google scholar

By Saul McLeodpublished The levels of processing model Craik and Lockhart, focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.

However, there is a necessary level of deception required in suck a design which raised ethical issues.

tulving research

Three examples of this are. Method Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions.

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Levels of Processing